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Carlos Nobre (Member, UN Scientific Advisory Board for Global Sustainability) and Juan Carlos Castilla-Rubio (Chairman, Space Time Ventures)
October 26, 2016
For a long time now, humans have drawn on the Amazon and its tremendous biodiversity – countless living organisms, plants, animals and insects – for raw materials and commodities. We have done it in the most unsustainable way possible, and unless we change course, the damage will be irreversible. But the Fourth Industrial Revolution – which includes technological developments such as genomics, gene editing, synthetic biology, nanotechnologies, artificial intelligence, robotics, the internet of things and blockchain – could be the solution we need.
Working papers: Latest Research
New entries on 25 October 2016
October 24, 2016
Numerosas economías emergentes, sobre todo en América Latina y el Caribe, se enfrentan a una deuda creciente, a déficit fiscales y a un crecimiento lento. Teniendo en cuenta la dirección de los razones de deuda sobre el PIB, numerosos países están decidiendo proceder a los “ajustes” para mantener la sostenibilidad. En este blog, propongo 10 prioridades que pueden orientar un período de consolidación empática.
Patricia Andrade de Oliveira e Silva and Marcelo Marques de Magalhães
October 21, 2016
Brazilian poverty rates are generally highest among family farmers in the country’s Northeast region. Of special note among rural development policies is the National Land Credit Programme (Programa Nacional de Crédito Fundiário—PNCF),  which provides credit to farmers with little or no land to buy a property and carry out the necessary improvements. However, in an effort to reduce default rates, to receive credit, farmers are required to be organised; therefore, the policy indirectly promotes association and the generation of social capital (the assets that are the result of social relations). Thus, although not explicitly the policy’s main objective, the generation of social capital can contribute towards rural development in the country.
Anders Fredriksson (Center for Organization Studies (CORS), FEAUSP, University of São Paulo)
October 20, 2016
It is often argued that public goods and services are provided in order to benefit certain groups of the population. This could be for political- or other reasons. In a recent paper I look at one specific aspect of public services, that is, the spatial distribution. I limit myself to services for which citizens visit the place of service delivery. The goal is to develop a transparent method in order to assess the optimality of the spatial distribution, which can then be used as an input to analyses of e.g. political manipulation. The paper, “Location-allocation of public services – Citizen access, Transparency and Measurement. A method and evidence from Brazil and Sweden” is forthcoming in Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, and will be presented at the 2016 LACEA meeting.
Cecilia Martínez Gomez
October 19, 2016
Leer no es solo saber que al escribir p y a juntas se forma la sílaba pa; que si escribes papa, hablas de un tubérculo o de la máxima autoridad de la iglesia católica y que con acento, papá es el hombre que ha dado vida o ejerce de padre. Así, existe diferencia entre el alfabetismo, el analfabetismo y el analfabetismo funcional. A pesar de que en la región de América Latina y el Caribe se ha avanzado considerablemente en la cobertura educativa y las tasas de alfabetismo, el analfabetismo funcional es aún un problema que refleja la desigualdad en la región. En el día de la alfabetización, comparto lo que significan estos términos y cómo influyen en una persona a lo largo de su vida, desde los primeros años.
Working papers: Latest Research
New entries on 18 October 2016
Daniel Gomez Gaviria (Head of Competitiveness Research, World Economic Forum)
October 17, 2016
This year’s Global Competitiveness Report has good, bad and ugly news for Latin America and the Caribbean. The top performing country in the region remains Chile (33th), rising two places in the rankings, followed by Panama (42th), which moves up eight places. Costa Rica falls slightly to 54th, while Mexico (51st) moves up six. In fact, 4 of the top 10 highest movers this year come from the Latin America and Caribbean region: Jamaica, Panama, Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Among the economies falling in the ranking are El Salvador, Ecuador, Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, and Bolivia.
Pedro Arruda, Manoel Salles and Luísa A. Nazareno
October 14, 2016
This One Pager aims to synthesise the broader findings of a larger working paper (Arruda et al. 2016) regarding the social policies and programmes of Chile and Peru. The social protection networks of these countries are largely the outcome of responsive actions determined by their socio-political and economic contexts. Both countries hold constant surveys to monitor prices, and their domestic poverty and extreme poverty thresholds are defined accordingly. They also feature national household surveys that, among other things, enable the authorities to estimate the incidence of poverty. Both feature targeting instruments that prioritise the most vulnerable households for social policies and programmes. The Chilean targeting instrument—the Fichas de Protección Social (FPS)—derives from a previous instrument dating back to 1979, and thus allows for broader coverage and a more accurate protocol for validating data than the Peruvian one, which is as recent as 2007.